FOREIGN AND OVERSEAS EDUCATION
THE INTERNATIONAL BACCALAUREATE (IB) www.ibo.org
The IBDP was developed in the early to mid-1960s in Geneva by a group of international educators. By the end of the decade a pilot programme had been established; and by the end of the 1970s a bilingual diploma was established. Generally the IBDP has been well-received, although the United States has seen objections to the IBDP.
Each programme includes a curriculum and pedagogy, student assessment appropriate to the age range, professional development for teachers and a process of school authorization and evaluation. The programmes are available through 2,980 IB World Schools in 139 countries.
Administered by the International Baccalaureate, the IBDP is taught in one of three languages (English, French or Spanish). In order to participate in the IBDP, students must attend an IB school. IBDP students complete assessments in six subjects and satisfy three core requirements
The three programmes for students aged 3 to 19 help develop the intellectual, personal, emotional and social skills to live, learn and work in a rapidly globalizing world. There are more than 830,000 IB students at 2,980 schools in 139 countries.
The three programmes span the years from kindergarten to pre-university. The programmes can be offered individually or as a continuum.
The Primary Years Programme for students aged 3 to 12 focuses on the development of the whole child in the classroom and in the world outside.
The Middle Years Programme for students aged 11 to 16 provides a framework of academic challenge and life skills, achieved through embracing and transcending traditional school subjects.
The International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (IBDP) is a two-year educational programme for students aged 16–19 that provides an internationally accepted qualification for entry into higher education, and is recognized by universities worldwide.
Core requirements and subject groups
To be awarded an IB Diploma, a candidate must fulfill three core requirements, in addition to passing his or her subject examinations:
• Extended essay (EE). Candidates must write an independent research essay of up to 4,000 words in a subject from the list of approved EE subjects. The candidate may choose to investigate a topic within a subject they are currently studying, although this is not required. The EE may not be written on an interdisciplinary topic
• Theory of knowledge (TOK). This course introduces students to theories about the nature and limitations of knowledge (basic epistemology) and provides practice in determining the meaning and validity of knowledge (critical thinking). It is claimed to be a "flagship element" of the Diploma Programme, and is the one course that all diploma candidates are required to take. TOK requires 100 hours of instruction, the completion of an externally assessed essay of 1,200–1,600 words (from a choice of ten titles prescribed by the IB), and an internally assessed presentation on the candidate's chosen topic.
• Creativity, action, service (CAS). CAS aims to provide students with opportunities for personal growth, self-reflection, intellectual, physical and creative challenges, and awareness of themselves as responsible members of their communities through participation in social or community work (service), athletics or other physical activities (action), and creative activities (creativity). The guideline for the minimum amount of CAS activity over the two-year Diploma programme is approximately 3–4 hours per week, though "hour counting” is not encouraged.
Diploma Programme core and subject groups
Students who pursue the IB Diploma must take six subjects, one from each of subject groups 1–5, and either one from group 6 or a permitted substitute from one of the other groups, as described below. Either three or four subjects must be taken at Higher level (HL) and the rest at Standard level (SL). The IB recommends a minimum of 240 hours of instructional time for HL courses and 150 hours for SL courses.
While the IB encourages students to pursue the full IB diploma, the "substantial workload require a great deal of commitment, organization, and initiative". If they wish, students may instead choose to register for one or more individual IB subjects, without the core requirements. Such students will not receive the full Diploma.
The six IBDP subject groups and course offerings are summarized below. More information about the subject groups and individual courses can be found at the respective subject group articles:
• Group 1: Language A1. Taken at either SL or HL, this is generally the student's native language, with over 80 different languages available. Students may choose to take a second language A1 in lieu of studying a second language as a Group 2 subject.
• Group 2: Second language. An additional language, taken at the following levels: Language A2 (SL or HL), Language B (SL or HL), or Language ab initio (SL only). Latin and Classical Greek are also offered and may be taken at SL or HL.
• Group 3: Individuals and societies. Humanities and social sciences courses offered at both SL and HL: Business and management, Economics, Geography, History, Information technology in a global society (ITGS), Islamic history, Philosophy, Psychology, and Social and cultural anthropology.
• Group 4: Experimental sciences. Four courses are offered at both SL and HL: Chemistry, Biology, Physics, and Design Technology. One course, Environmental systems and Societies, is offered at SL only.
• Group 5: Mathematics and computer science. In order of increasing difficulty, the courses offered are Mathematical Studies SL, Mathematics SL and HL, and Further Mathematics SL, as well as two elective courses, Computer science SL and HL.
• Group 6: The arts. Courses offered at both SL and HL: Music, Theatre, Visual Arts, and Film. In lieu of taking a Group 6 course, students may choose to take an additional course from Groups 1–4 or either Further Mathematics SL (if already studying Mathematics HL) a Computer science course from Group 5, or a school-based syllabus course approved by IB.
Environmental systems and societies SL is a transdisciplinary course designed to meet the diploma requirements for groups 3 and 4.
Online Diploma Programme and pilot courses
The IB is developing a pilot online version of the IBDP and currently offers several courses to IBDP students. Eventually, the IB expects to offer their online courses to any student who wishes to register. Additionally, the IB has developed pilot courses that include world religions, sports, exercise and health sciences, dance, and a transdisciplinary pilot course, text and performance.
International Baccalaureate (IB) in Nigeria
There are 4 International Baccalaureate (IB) World Schools in Nigeria offering one or more of the three IB programmes. 1 school offers the Primary Years Programme and 3 schools offer the Diploma Programme. The first school was authorized in 1992. These schools are:
1. American International School, Lagos
2. D-Ivy College, Lagos
3. GreenSprings School, Lagos
4. Ibadan International School, Ibadan
Recognition of IB diploma for admission to universities and colleges in Nigeria
The Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board (JAMB) appointed by the Federal Government of Nigeria to process university entry, recognizes IB Higher Level certificates for direct entry into the universities. The full diploma is not required but IB Higher Level certificates qualify candidates for direct admission to all universities in Nigeria.
However, although Nigerian universities and other tertiary institutions recognize IB Higher Level certificates as an entry qualification, the West African Examinations Council (WAEC) formerly equated IB Higher Level graduates to points scored in the Nigerian GCE A level examinations. Grades required will vary depending on the individual faculties but IB Higher Level grades below 4 are not recognized by the universities.
In addition to the IB Higher Level certificates, universities also require at least five WAEC GCE O level passes at credit level 1-6 or University of London Examinations Board GCE O levels grade A-C.
All applications to the Nigerian universities are channeled through the central administration of the JAMB from whom application forms are collected by the universities. Candidates should collect the form for direct entry from the universities by January/February of the year of entry and are usually free to choose three universities in order of preference. When the results of the examinations are known, the JAMB on the recommendation of the university send letters confirming admission direct to the candidate and copies to the university.
There is a preliminary class admission based on a satisfactory result of a concessional university entrance examination and the WAEC GCE O level examination recognized as equivalent to IB Standard Level examinations. Whereas preliminary class admission students study for a five year course, the direct entry candidates follow a four year undergraduate course.
TEST OF ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE (TOEFL) www.toefl.org
The TOEFL® test (Test of English as a Foreign Language™) is the most widely respected English-language test in the world, recognized by more than 7,500 colleges, universities and agencies in more than 130 countries. Wherever you want to study, the TOEFL test can help you get there.
The TOEFL test is offered in two formats:
1. The TOEFL iBT™ Test, in an Internet-based format
2. Paper-based test (PBT).
The format you take depends on the location of your test center, so your first step is to decide where you will take the test.
You can take the TOEFL test at your choice of more than 4,500 conveniently located test sites in more than 165 countries worldwide. You also save time and money since the entire test is given in one day, rather than coming back a second day like some other tests.
Measures Academic Skills
The TOEFL test helps prove you have the English skills you will actually use in an academic classroom. In the test, you may read a passage from a textbook and listen to a lecture and then speak or write in response, just like you would in a classroom. Because the test is composed of 100% academic questions and tasks, many universities consider it the most appropriate test to use when making admissions decisions.
Rates Speaking More Fairly
Sure, you can take a test with a Speaking interview, but what if your interviewer has a bad day and rates you lower than you deserve? With the TOEFL test, there's no doubt your score is more objective and reliable, because Speaking responses are recorded and evaluated by three to six ETS raters rather than only one rater from a local testing site.
Scores Help You Stand Out
TOEFL test scores help you stand out because of its reputation for quality, fairness and 100% academic composition. It is the most widely accepted English-language test in the world, including more than 7,500 colleges, universities, agencies and other institutions in 130 countries. And that list includes the top 100 universities in the world.
By sending TOEFL scores to your selected university, you will be proving that you are ready for academic success.
Toefl In Nigeria
In Nigeria the candidates can take either the internet based or paper based papers and can sit for the exams in the following cities: Aba, Benin Yenagoa, Surulere Lagos, Port harcourt, Warri, Owerri, Mokola Ibadan, Abeokuta Ogun State, Abuja, Akure, Mushin, Enugu, Ikeja, Uturu Abia State, Ikoyi Lagos, Jos, Kaduna, Kano, Minna.
Cost of the examination is $175 for the internet based and $150 for the paper based.
NCUK INTERNATIONAL FOUNDATION YEAR (NCUK IFY) www.ncuk.ac.uk
The NCUK International Foundation Year (IFY) is a modular programme that prepares students for first-year entry to a wide range of bachelors degree courses in the UK. Students take combinations of modules appropriate for their intended degree course.
The IFY has 'standard' streams in Business, Engineering, Science and Design, or it can be delivered in a more flexible modular format.
All NCUK IFY programmes are delivered with NCUK's bespoke 'English for Academic Purposes' module which gives students the language ability and study skills to succeed in Higher Education.
NCUK provides programmes to prepare international students for study outside their home country. Successful completion of one of our programmes guarantees students a place on an appropriate course at a partner university.
The NCUK is owned by 11 British universities namely: University of Bradford, University of Huddersfield, University of Leeds, university of Liverpool, University of Manchester, university of Salford, University of Sheffield, Sheffield Halam University, Manchester Metropolitan University, Leeds Metropolitan University and the Liverpool John Moores University.
NCUK IFY in Nigeria (http://www.ncuk.ac.uk/nigeria)
In Nigeria, NCUK has worked successfully with Oxbridge College for the past four years in delivering the NCUK International Foundation Year (NCUK IFY) programme in Nigeria. Building on this success NCUK is now working with a network of prestigious schools delivering NCUK’s IFY across the country – three are based in Lagos, one in Kaduna State and one in Kwara State. This unique pathway programme provides Nigerian students with the study skills and subject knowledge that they need to make their undergraduate study in the UK a success.
The NCUK International Foundation Year (IFY) is a modular programme that prepares students for first-year entry to a wide range of bachelors degree courses. In Nigeria our delivery centers offer the IFY in several of 'streams' allowing students some flexibility in their programme of study.
Each 'stream' has two compulsory 'subject' modules, and one optional subject module. All streams allow progression to a wide variety of degree programmes in the UK.
All NCUK IFY programmes in Nigeria are delivered with NCUK's bespoke 'Key Skills' module which gives students the academic and study skills necessary to succeed in Higher Education. The programmes are offered in the following areas
3. Humanities and
Successful completion of an NCUK programme guarantees you a place leading to an appropriate degree at a partner university.
NCUK IFY Schools in Nigeria
Kaduna State Zamani College (www.zamanicollege.com)
Kwara State - Thomas Adewuni International College (www.adewumicollege.com)
Chrisland Colleges (www.chrislandschools.com)
Supreme Education Foundation (www.supremeeducation.com)
Oxfam College (www.oxbridgecoll.com)
AS AND A LEVELS AS (Advanced Subsidiary) and A (Advanced) level qualifications one of the main routes into higher education, but they're also useful if you want to go straight into a job, such as office administration or trainee accountancy.
A levels: AS plus A2
A levels are made up of the AS level and the A2. Each part makes up 50 per cent of the overall A level grade.
The AS level can be either a free standing qualification, or be valued as the first half of the full A level. At the end of the AS year, you have two options (depending on the preference of your school or college):
• take the AS level qualification only or:
• continue to the second year and go for the full A level
Year two: the A2
In year two of a full A level, you take the A2 - this is not a separate qualification, but the second half of the A level. The A2 is designed to deepen the knowledge you gained during the AS level.
Showing your full potential
If you started your A levels after September 2008, you can also choose to take the extended project. This is equivalent in size to half an A level and requires you to produce a single piece of work of your own choosing, showing evidence of planning, preparation, research and working on your own.
In most cases, you need at least five GCSEs at grades A*-C. Sometimes, you need a grade B or above at GCSE in a particular subject to take it at AS or A level. Some schools and colleges also ask that you have GCSE grade C or above in English and maths.
There are about 80 AS and A level subjects available. You can continue with subjects taken in Years 10 and 11 and/or take new ones. Most students studying for A levels take three or four AS levels in their first year. This means you can keep your options open about which subjects to study as a full A level.
Vocational A levels
There is also a range of vocational A levels, called 'applied GCEs'. There are 10 subjects, offering a broad introduction to a vocational area such as business or tourism.
How you are assessed
In most subjects the AS and A2 are each made up of two units, although in some subjects they are each three units. The majority of the assessment is by written exams, although in some subjects there is a small amount of coursework. There is also assessment of practical skills in subjects like science or art. www.direct.gov.uk
AS and A levels are graded A-E. An A* grade will be first awarded at A level in 2010. The results are announced in August and March.
Your results slip will also show a score on something called the 'uniform mark scale' (UMS). The AS is scored out of 300 UMS marks, and the A level out of 600 marks.
So you've sat your examinations and have your results, but what do they mean? Well, we know that the A-level grades range from E-A*, with A* being the highest, but what criteria do you have to meet to obtain an A* grade? Each module has a set of points that must be achieved in order to gain each specific grade.
The raw mark in papers are converted to marks on a Uniform Mark Scale (UMS) to give a broader understanding of how well a student performed. If students have over 80% of UMS marks with an average of 90% across A2 modules they are awarded an A*, 80+% is also an A grade, 70-79% offers a B grade, 60-69% is C, 50-59% is D and 40-49% offers you the bottom pass E grade.
Now that's the basics out of the way, but what does this mean in accordance with your UCAS points and university application? Well, each grade is equivalent to a number of points that meet the criteria for your university application. Your AS-level will also offer you UCAS points of up to 60 for an A grade, reducing by 10 per grade below.
An A* at A-level is equivalent to 140 UCAS tariff points, A gives you 120 points, B gives you 100, C is 80, D is 60 and E is 40. So, for example, if you achieved an A*, a B and a D at A-level then your UCAS points are 300. http://www.a-levels.co.uk
Framework for Higher Education Qualifications
The FHEQ broadly corresponds with levels 4 to 8 of the National Qualifications Framework, in terms of the demands the qualifications place on learners.
FHEQ level.................... Examples of qualifications
4..............................................- Certificates of higher education
................................................- Higher national certificates
5..............................................- Diplomas of higher education
................................................- Foundation Degrees
................................................- Higher national diplomas
6..............................................- Bachelors degrees
................................................- Bachelors degrees with honours
................................................- Graduate certificates and diplomas
................................................- Professional Graduate Certificate in Education
7...............................................- Masters degrees
................................................- Integrated masters degrees
................................................- Postgraduate certificates
................................................- Postgraduate diplomas
8...............................................- Doctoral degrees
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Then Contact Excellence and Education Network today. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org,
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