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 Basic Quiz on Choosing Quantifiers

Quantifiers: A Basic Quiz

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I. In the following sentences, fill in the gaps with one of the following quantifiers:
    much, many
a. It seems to me that we've had assignments in English this term.
b. How material can we be expected to read in one week?
c. books are not in the library.
d. I've had headaches already because of stress.
e. depression can be attributed to being overworked.

II. Using the button at the bottom of the quiz, check your answers in Part I. (Incorrect responses will be blanked out.) If you got them all correct, go back and substitute either "lots of" or "a lot of" where you think those quantifiers might be appropriate. Re-check your answers.


III. In the following sentences, fill in the gaps with one of the following quantifiers:
    much, many, few, little, most.

When you've gotten all the answers right, see if you can substitute other quantifiers from the list. (HINT: Three of the last four sentences could have two different answers.)
a. Our yard looks awful this summer. There are too weeds.
b. I didn't use fertilizer last spring, and that has made a difference.
c. Also, I've paid attention to how rain we've had.
d. I'm afraid it's rained times this summer, and the grass is turning brown and dying.
e. experts say you should fertilize your lawn in the fall.
f. It didn't seem to do my lawn good.
g. advice you get from experts doesn't seem to help.
h. of my neighbors ignore their grass, and they have better lawns this year.



IV. In the following sentences, fill in the gaps with one of the following quantifiers:
    a little, little, a few, few.
Again, when you've gotten all the answers correct, go back and try substituting other quantifiers. (HINT: Three of the four can have more than one correct response.)
a. They say knowledge is a bad thing.
b. I know instances where that proves true.
c. people know as much about computers as Tomasz does.
d. But it does him good when the whole system goes down.


 Quiz on Quantifiers

Quantifiers: Fill in the gaps

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1. I'm having of trouble passing my driving exam.
2. the movies were rated PG.
3. information proved to be outdated.
4. We're close to the project deadline, but there is still time left.
5. Although there are brilliant students in this state -- thousands, even, only will choose to remain in the state after graduation.
6. We were able to destroy the parasites with our antigen, but of them survived to cause trouble.
7. a student has passed through these doors.
8. Although of the lawn is open to the sun, there are of shade trees to make it comfortable.
9. I think he drank wine last night.
10. the evidence was taken from the police safe last night.



 Quiz on A, An, and The

Articles: A Basic Quiz

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"Cold Comfort"
by Michael Castleman
from Mother Jones Magazine, March/April 1998; reprinted with permission.

Not so long ago, many of us resisted separating glass, cans, and paper out of our garbage. What hassle. Today, of course, every second-grader knows that world's resources are limited and that recycling helps preserve them. We act locally, while thinking globally. It's time to bring same consciousness to health care as we face growing medical crisis: loss of antibiotic effectiveness against common bacterial illnesses. By personally refusing -- or not demanding -- antibiotics for viral illnesses they won't cure, we can each take step toward prolonging overall antibiotic effectiveness.

Media reports have likely made you aware of this problem, but they have neglected implications. Your brother catches cold that turns into sinus infection. His doctor treats him with antibiotics, but bacteria are resistant to all of them. The infection enters his bloodstream -- a condition known as septicemia -- and few days later, your brother dies. (Septicemia is what killed Muppets creator Jim Henson a few years ago.) Or instead of cold, he has infected cut that won't heal, or any other common bacterial disease, such as ear or prostate infection.

Far-fetched? It's not. antibiotics crisis is real. Consider Streptococcus pneumoniae: This common bacterium often causes post-flu pneumonia. (Pneumonia and influenza combined are country's sixth leading cause of death, killing 82,500 Americans in 1996.) Before 1980, less than 1 percent of S. pneumoniae samples showed any resistance to penicillin. As of last May, researchers at Naval Medical Center in San Diego discovered that 22 percent of S. pneumoniae samples were highly resistant to it, with another 15 percent moderately so. And most recent statistics from Sentry Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, which monitors bacterial resistance at 70 medical centers in U.S., Canada, Europe, and South America, show that 44 percent of S. pneumoniae samples in the U.S. are highly resistant, and worldwide, resistance is at all-time high (55 percent).

Strains of S. pneumoniae are also now resistant to tetracycline, erythromycin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, and several other antibiotics. And there's a "plausible risk" that we'll run out of options for treating other types of pneumonia as well, according to infectious disease expert Joshua Lederberg of Rockefeller University in New York. not-too-distant future promises potential failure of medicine's ability to treat broad range of bacterial infections -- from urinary tract infections to meningitis to tuberculosis.

Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a direct outgrowth of the overuse of these drugs. In classic Darwinian fashion, more doctors prescribe antibiotics, more likely it is for some lucky bacterium blessed with minor genetic variation to survive antibiotic assault-and pass its resistance along to its offspring. The solution is obvious: Doctors should prescribe antibiotics only as last resort.

This strategy works. In early 1990s, Finnish public health authorities responded to rising bacterial resistance to erythromycin by discouraging its use as a first-line treatment for certain infections. From 1991 to 1992, erythromycin consumption per capita dropped 43 percent. By 1996, bacterial resistance to antibiotic had been cut almost in half. But American doctors are doing spectacularly lousy job of keeping their pens off their prescription pads, most notably by prescribing antibiotics for common cold and other upper respiratory tract infections (URIs). Data from National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey show that bronchitis and URIs account for third of nation's antibiotic prescriptions. Antibiotics treat only bacterial infections and are completely powerless against viral illnesses. Every doctor knows this.

Yet, according to recent study by Dr. Ralph Gonzalez, assistant professor of medicine at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center in Denver, when adults consult physicians for URIs and bronchitis that often follows them, more than half walk out with prescription for antibiotic. If doctors simply stopped prescribing antibiotics for conditions they know don't respond to them, we'd instantly be well on our way to minimizing antibiotic resistance.

Why are doctors so ready to prescribe antibiotics? Physicians are quick to blame public. Patients, they say, demand antibiotics, and doctors are so terrified of malpractice suits they prescribe them to keep their customers happy and their lawyers at bay.

There's another side to story: Doctors are trained that there's pill for every ill (or there should be). All of their medical education conspires to make antibiotic prescription their knee-jerk reaction to any infection, which may or may not have bacterial cause.

In addition, prescribing antibiotics is the doctors' path of least resistance. It's easier than taking time to explain that antibiotics are worthless against viral infections, and to recommend rest, fluids, and vitamin C-or, God forbid, herbal, homeopathic, Chinese, or other complementary treatment. Most medical practices schedule patients at 15-minute intervals. Rather than doing what they know is right for public health, it's much quicker for doctors to whip out the prescription pad and send people on their merry, albeit misinformed way.

In better world, medical education would be less drug-oriented and health care system would encourage doctors to take time to be effective health educators. But even in our imperfect world, some basic health education can help prevent frivolous antibiotic use from boomeranging.

Like our doctors, we Americans have been socialized into believing that antibiotics are miracle drugs that can cure just about everything. They aren't, and they don't. We've also been trained to think that colds and their lingering coughs should clear up in few days. They usually don't -- even if you load up on cold formulas that promise to make all symptoms magically vanish. A study by University of Virginia professor of medicine Jack Gwaltney, one of nation's top cold researchers, shows that nearly one-third of adults with colds are still coughing after 10 days. Meanwhile, according to a recent survey by researchers at Louisiana State University Medical Center in New Orleans, after just five days of cold symptoms, 61 percent of adults are ready to head for their doctors -- and ask for unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions.

My fellow Americans, the next time you feel cold coming on, mark your calendar. Unless you start coughing up lots of green sputum or develop unusual symptoms -- for example, a fever that does not respond to aspirin, acetaminophen (Tylenol), or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) -- think twice about calling your doctor before two weeks have passed.

What I do instead is, from moment I feel the infection coming on, I drink lots of hot fluids, take 500 to 1,000 milligrams of vitamin C four times a day, suck on zinc lozenge every two waking hours, and mix half a teaspoon of tincture of echinacea, immune-boosting herb, into juice or tea three times a day.

Reliable studies show that these approaches reduce severity and duration of colds. If you develop persistent cough at tail end of your cold, keep taking vitamin C and try an over-the-counter cough suppressant containing dextromethorphan.

If we hope to preserve antibiotic effectiveness, it's up to us, public, to convince doctors to prescribe these drugs only when they're necessary. This from-the- bottom-up approach is nothing new. Health consumers have taken the lead in showing doctors value of fitness, nutrition, and alternative therapies. It's time we get serious about antibiotics.

"Cold Comfort" is from the March/April 1998 issue of Mother Jones magazine;1998, Foundation for National Progress. It is used, also, as an example of a cause-and-effect essay.

An excellent text for an in-depth study of articles is A University Grammar of English by Randolph Quirk and Sidney Greenbaum. Longman Group: Essex, England. 1993. Another good resource, especially for students for whom English is a second language, is Quick Access: Reference for Writers by Lynn Quitman Troyka. Simon & Schuster: New York. 1995.

Another place to discover more about the use of articles is at Purdue University's Online Writing Lab (OWL). www.english.purdue.edu/handouts/esl/eslart.html

 See, also, the University of Toronto's Rules for Using the Word The (www.utoronto.ca/writing/1the.html) and Rensselaer's handout on Article Usage (www.rpi.edu/web/writingcenter/esl.html) . The online journal for Teachers of English as a Second Language has several quizzes on article usage. (www.aitecch.ac.jp/~iteslj/quizzes/grammar.html)  Students should be forewarned, however, that the best way to address this problem (if it is one) is to immerse oneself in the use of English, paying particular attention to these "little words."

This entire article has been Reproduced with the help and permission of Capital Community College Foundation, Hartford, Connecticut, USA, a nonprofit 501 c-3 organization that supports scholarships, faculty development, and curriculum innovation. If you feel the College have provided something of value and wish to show your appreciation, you can assist the College and its students with a contribution.

For more about giving to Capital Community College, write to CCC Foundation, 950 Main Street, Hartford, CT 06103, USA. Phone (860) 906-5102 or email: jmcnamara@ccc.commnet.edu. Contributions are tax-deductible to the extent allowed by law in the USA.


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